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The Republic of Kazakhstan is an agrarian-industrial country. The currency unit of Kazakhstan is Tenge.
Kazakhstan’s geographical location in the center of the Eurasian continent predetermines its important transport potential in the area of transit traffic. The length of land traffic artery of the republic is 106 thousand km, including 13,5 thousand km of main-line railways, 87,4 thousand km of public hard-surface highways, 4 thousand km of river routes.
Construction of border railway crossing Druzhba – Alashankou between Kazakhstan and China, opening of railway crossing Serakhs – Meshkhed between Turkmenistan and Iran opened new transit roads on Silk Route: from the Pacific ports of China - Lianyungang, Qingdao, Tianjin - to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Turkey, the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf ports.
Transportation of goods on this route is in full swing. Highway network gives an outlet to Russia and former soviet republics, as well as to China, Turkey, Iran, providing access to the ports of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Maritime shipping is carried out on the Caspian sea (Aktau port) with an outlet to the Black and Baltic Seas through Russian river routes.
National airline “Air Kazakhstan” has opened more than 40 routes in Kazakhstan, CIS and far abroad. Such leading foreign companies as British Airways, Lufthansa, KLM, Transaero, PIA, Turkish Airlines, Iran Air, etc. are working in the republic.
At present, Kazakhstan’s export potential has a pronounced raw-material orientation and is based on fuel, metallurgical and chemical complex. Main share in the structure of Kazakhstan export is represented by oil and oil products (35%). The other important commodity groups are nonferrous metals (17%), ferrous metals (16%), ores (12%), and certain part of export falls to the share of grain crops (9%).
The main imported goods are machinery and equipment, transport facilities, devices and automatic machinery, chemical production, mineral fuel, food commodities, finished goods and consumer goods. The structure of Kazakhstan’s export-import from year to year undergoes changes towards diversification of business. However, the share of trade with the traditional partners - countries of CIS and the Baltic - is still great: they make about 59% of export and up to 63% of import. However, Russia remains the main trade partner. Trade connections are successfully developing with such far-abroad countries as Germany, Turkey, Switzerland, Czech, Italy, China, the USA, Great Britain, Southern Korea, etc.