Roza Zhussupova, Honoured Arts Worker of RK
From space our earth looks like a small blue ball, said the first spaceman, Yuri Gagarin. Amazing how millions of years ago this fragile planet could become the cradle of life
Replacing each other, born the centers of civilization, the ancient people mastered the wood, bone, stone and copper tools, learned how to strike a fre, invented the bow and arrows, weaving machines, tamed the horse and other animals learned to plow the ground, created a multifunctional dwelling, the yurt, mastered writing and learned writing and put-ting ornaments on pottery, created on the rocks their great works of art. The planet was changing along with it changed and evolved the human. Some 4000 years ago, and for the history it is a moment, the planet was the place for the frst technological revolution that is the human invented the bronze! Southern Siberia, Central Kazakhstan, the unique Arch are the frst iron and steel centres of the earth. "Heavenly Metal" or found an alloy of copper and tin allowed riding a horse hobble, and turn an ordinary steppe man into the centaur. Mankind has entered the era of the iron, the wheel of history rolled faster.
At this time (I thousand BC), in the East, new tribes were forming (see Bichurin N. Ya. [Ya-kinf], History collection of peoples inhabited the Middle Asia in ancient times), empires were born and died, masterpieces of jewellery were created, the fnest silk appeared, beautiful bright fabrics, and at the same time the struggle for power and territory exacerbated dramatically. China, defending from the countless invasions of the early Huns nomads, led by the formidable Mode Hagan (III-II cc AD) (as Groom Gzhimaylo referred in his "Western Mongolia and Uriankhai edge," Mode in Chinese meant the transfer of the name Bagatur), built the Great stone wall, which in our days is clearly visible from space. It is more probable that the Hun tribal alliance was mixed, ethnically heterogeneous: it consisted of Turks, Mongols, Ugric (i.e., ancestors of the Magyars), Khanty and Mansi, and Paleo-Asians. In the "History of the Jin Dynasty," in the section on the Huns (Huns) from 284 AD, a number of tribes are listed, among which is the tribe named Tu-ge,
which was "the most powerful and respected" Scattered tribes of the Great Steppe: which meant the area of Manchuria and northern China to the steppes of Kazakhstan today, after the collapse of the Huns, were united in "dozen of tribes" alliance of Turkic-speaking tribes, which included Kipchaks, Kengerlu, Uighurs, Kalash, Karluk. "When the blue sky was created at the top and the brown earth at the bottom, between both of them there were born the sons of mankind. Above the sons of mankind, we sat down, the ancestors of Bumyn Kagan and Istemi Kagan. Having ruled the kingdom, they guarded the state and established laws of the Turk people ", so the story about the beginning of a new era in the desert, the era of domination of the Turkic tribes, their languages and the state's largest written monu-ment to the Turks, a runic inscription in honor of Kyultegin. Thanks to the "high-vehicles" , carts, as written about them in Chinese chronicles, the technological superiority of the "Altai blacksmiths' and the use of cataphracts - Plate cavalry, nomadic troops and their families it was possible to manage overcome enormous distances, wandering to the West. By the way, the scientist Klyashtorny S.G. is convinced that the term "tele-" is associated with the word "tegreg": Turkic - "cart, wagon." In the last centuries BC and the frst centuries AD "the tours with fast horses" or, as the father of history Herodotus wrote, the "Asian Scythians", the Sar-matians, Saka, Alans, Concarius began assimilating with each other and settle on the plains of the Eastern Europe. In the academic science this movement of peoples is known as the Great Migration. But they spoke in genetically related languages, which are now combined in the Ural-Altaic group of languages. The similarity of language, according to the chronicle references by Abul-gazy-Bahadur, as well as researches by Okladnikov, Rudenko, Gumilev, Budberg and Pulliblanc, was refected to some degree in the similarity between the ancient and historical destinies of peoples genealogically close-language creators.
And, like any orderly movement, this lasting historical process at its fnal stage had its own leader, military leader, Attila (Edil) (434-453 BC). It was him to manage forming a quick, ruthless, skilful, and hard to win Turkic army from multiple disparate tribal groups, which tried to conquer the Roman west. The Huns conquered the Caucasus, the lower reaches of the rivers Dnieper, Dniester, Don, the Balkan peninsula, Mesopotamia, attacked the walls of Constantinople, destroyed the kingdom of Burgundy (an event which served as the basic plot, "Song of the Nibelungs"), reached the banks of the Danube from there raided the Eastern Roman Empire . Byzantium was paying an exorbitant annual tribute. As a Mu’tazilah theologian, Sumam b. Ashras, wrote: 'Turks do not know either fattery or deception, or hypocrisy, or peaching, or pretense, or slander, or duplicity, or arrogance with relatives, or harassment of associates, they are not susceptible to vice heresy, do not let the whims to overwhelm them and do not afford to borrow money for the interpretation of the law. Their drawback and the reason for their suffering is the nostalgia, the desire for wandering, the passion for the raids, robberies and strong affection of their customs." Later, Attila has created a unifed state from the Volga to the Rhine, which besides the Hun (Altai) tribes consisted of many others, including the Germans, Alans, Slavanians, Ugroins. Priscus, who visited the capital of Attila as an ambassador, described the Huns in his "History of Goths" as follows: "Crossing some rivers, we arrived a large settlement in which, they said, there were mansions of Attila, more prominent than in all other places, built of logs and well-planed boards and surrounded by a wooden fence encircling them not for security, but for beauty. The mansions of Onogesiya were seen behind the royal mansions, also surrounded by a wooden fence, but it was not decorated with towers, just like Attila’s. Inside the fence there were many buildings, some of whom were from the beautiful adjusted boards, covered with carvings, and others made of hewn scraped to the straightness of logs that are inserted into the wooden wheels ...
As the squad of theirs consists of various barbarian peoples, then the kinsmen, except for their barbaric language, learn from each other both the Hun and the Gothic, and Italic language. Italic comes from frequent communion with Rome. After overcoming some way with the barbarians, we, on the orders of the Scythians, adjoined to us, went to a different path, and meanwhile, Attila stopped in some town to marry the daughter of Eski, though he had many wives: Scythian law allows polygamy.
Each of those present by the Scythian courtesy rose and gave us a full cup, then embraced then the kissed a drunk, took the cup back».
According to the chronicler of Jordan, the tribes which were part of the "Hun" Union brazenly invaded both western and eastern parts of the Roman Empire and settled in Thrace, Illini, dalmatic, Pannonia, Gaul, and even the Apennine peninsula. Later, in 455, in the battle of the river in Panno-nia Nedao the Huns were defeated and went into the Black Sea region: a powerful alliance fell apart. The fact that after the death of Attila's empire, many Turkic peoples began to emerge the scene of history under their self-names, says that before, being in the union of Huns, they were "hidden" under a common name, not revealing their identity in the mass of the huge union of tribes. Now they are the people, including the Kazakhs, playing their own role in the historical action. The fate of many ancient states is cyclic: they all passed the period of infancy, the rapid rise and relentless fall. Few of them could revive and, like the Phoenix, once again show the world their strength, beauty and power. Modern peoples of Dasht-i-Kipchak, within Eurasia remember their cradle Altai; worship Tengri, the God of heaven, who gave the world metal, keep the priceless centuries-old spiritual heritage. During years of bat, we, the Turks, declare the verse by Magzhan Zhumabayev, in which we ask the destiny to give all suffering that we must pass: «Слышишь, судьба, не хочу подаяний! Полною мерой отмерь мне страданий, В огненном вихре сжигая дотла. Пусть этот вихрь мое тело корежит, Испепелит, до золы уничтожит. Так, чтоб из глаз моих соль потекла… Слышишь, судьба, не хочу подаяний! Полною мерой отмерь мне страданий, Жги на огне, в три погибели гни!»
Despite the long years of forgetting our own history and culture, we learn and discover new page in the history of ethnic groups and nations that we worship as our ancestors, interpret the fate of the great personalities and remember the lessons of history. Perhaps it is no coincidence that the frst person overcame the gravity from the ancient Land of Baikonur and few around the Earth in a spaceship with a unique name of "East".